In Paris, burned supercars by 6 million euros
In the fire of the fire that raged on Friday in an underground garage in the Place Vendome in Paris, the most preliminary calculations, burned more than 40 luxury cars. Because of the fire on the second level of underground parking, people were evacuated from nearby buildings, including guests luxury hotels Ritz and Hyatt, the staff of the Ministry of Justice of France, workers and visitors jewelry boutiques, designer clothes shops and restaurants located on the square.
The call came at 16.40 120 fire brigades and 30 ambulances. Coping with fire firefighters managed to only nine in the evening. Because of the extreme smoke 15 people were poisoned by carbon monoxide, one hospitalized with minor injuries. In addition, according to preliminary estimates, burned more than 40 luxury cars worth over 6 million euros. Among them – a rare model of Maserati, Ferrari, Porsche, Aston Martin, Mercedes-Benz and others. The city authorities are concerned that the damage could get parking and the construction itself. Currently, there are active consultations with the architects.
In addition, losses incurred and hoteliers – the rooms, which cost up to several thousand euros, smelled burning. Now living in these hotels are members of the Paris fashion week, which these days takes place in the French capital.
According to the French press, the cause of fire is unknown until now: in one version, a fuel leak fault, on the other – one of those mysterious self-ignition, which is sometimes guilty of supercars.
Cytoplasmic network without interruption connected to the cytoplasmic mem-brane, nuclear membrane and Golgi complex plate. This enables the synthesized proteins take place in the Golgi complex, which, after the ad hoc process, they are output from the cell or go to form lysosomes.
The plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum membrane, and the nuclei, mitochondria, and chloroplasts (see below) are extremely complex structures have a number of important biological properties .neyshih. Many membranes contain enzymes, transport systems, via co-transport molecules is toryh nutrients and inorganic ions into the cells inside the cells and the output of cell waste products. Membrane structures are able to heal itself, if they for some reason there are damages.
In the process of artificial grinding or homogenization of cells with the experimental objectives form small particles with diameters of 50-150 nm, with stand-out of the first fragments of the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane. These structures are called microsomes and are widely used in laboratory work for the solution of various problems of molecular organization of cells.
c) the Golgi complex. This complex, called another plate, opened the Italian Camillo Golgi in 1898 It is present in all cells except red blood cells and sperm cells, and is a system of single-layer disc-shaped membranes (membrane vesicles or tanks) and is located next to the smooth endoplazmati-cal reticulum and the nucleus (Fig. 49). Often the cells exhibit several of these complexes (dictatorship Som) having a size of 30-60 nm. Structural molecules, structure-supported tanks are enzymes involved in the pro-tsessing oligosaccharides, proteins, which are autoantibodies, as well as proteins, which are components of the cytoskeleton. The main function of the Golgi complex is that it is a place packaging (sealing) a protein originating from the ribosome, and the attachment of carbohydrates to proteins (glycoproteins formation), and to polysaccharides – sulfate groups, followed by transport them to other cell structures or outside cells (exocytosis). In liver cells, this complex is involved in the allocation of blood lipoproteins. As noted above, it is also involved in the formation of lysosomes.
Enchylema. This structural component is the primary substance (cytoplasm Hyaloplasm) cells. First elektronnomik-microscopic images of the cytoplasm were received by the Swedish scientist F. Shestrandom in 1955 Distinguish ectoplasm – a substance condusive Xia closer to the cytoplasmic membrane (solid) and endoplasm, spaced-yaschuyu to the center of the cells from ectoplasm (a liquid) and presents a guide cytosol. Consistency cytosol approaching the gel, dissolved in it many enzymes and proteins that mediate binding and transport of nutrients, minerals and oxygen. Here are the amino acids and nucleotides as well as various metabolites (biosynthetic intermediates and decomposition macromolecules). Finally, in the cytosol are present various coenzymes and ATP, ADP, some ions of inorganic salts (K, Mg2, Ca2, C1-, HCO-February 3, HPO4-2), mRNA.
The cytoplasm contains microfilaments (filaments) and a thickness of 4-5 nm in micro tubes are hollow cylindrical structures with a diameter of 25 nm and intermediate-sized filaments. These structures form a rigid structure (frame) in the cell, called the cytoskeleton and a decisive appearance and shape of the cells. Microfilaments are composed of proteins similar to the contractile protein actin.
Joining together to form bundles of microfilaments, which includes additional proteins (ankerin, spectrin, and others). The main function of microphone elements is to ensure that the contractile processes of cells, simplifying chenii membranes. Microtubules are composed of proteins – and -tubulin and -tubulin. For microtubules characterized by a number of functions. Formation of micro-rotrubochek occurs in interphase cells in the so-called centers of organization of microtubules (RTMC) that ‘surround’ centrioles, resulting Th-th suggest that centrioles are RTMC (Fig. 50). Each CSO is contained 10-13 molecules of -tubulin, and approximately 7 molecules of other proteins, including the di-action / -tubulin. These proteins form the structure which forms micropipe “ensemble”. Their value is not fully elucidated, but presumably is that they provide moving organelles, including chromosomes within cells.
In the composition exhibit cytoplasmic enzymes, polysaccharides, ATP, tRNA, ions of Ca, Na, K, and other elements.
The main function of cytoplasmic-ray matrix is that it is the internal environment of the cell, supporting membrane systems, organelles and inclusions. It carried out glycolysis, activation of amino acids and other reactions. The cytoskeleton performs a supporting function. Microfilaments facilitate the consolidation of the membrane system and microtubules drums, as noted above, provide a movement of the cell organelles and transportation of chemical compounds from one compartment to the other cells. The cytoskeleton is also important in cell division.
Cellular organelles. These structures are the nucleus, chromosomes, the nucleolus, centrioles, mitochondria, ribo-som, lysosomes. They are characterized by some exceptions for animal cells and for plant cells.
a) The core of the cell has a shape and size, depending on the shape, size and function of the cell. The cells of eukaryotic organisms contain usually one core, at least two or more. In the mature state of mammalian erythrocytes and cells of sieve tubes of angiosperms have no nuclei, while the cells of the skeletal muscles of vertebrates and vascular plants are the milk multicore. For ciliates characterized by the presence of two nuclei – one small (micronucleus) and one large polythene (macronucleus).
Typically, the core has a rounded, rod-shaped, elongated beaded and other forms. Its dimensions range from 2 to 100 microns, and the volume is about 65 mkm3. Especially large nuclei characteristic germ cells (up to 500 microns). The ratio of the volume of the nucleus to the cytoplasm is called a nuclear-plasma ratio, which is in the cells of all types are usually permanently.
The structure of the nucleus is characterized by extreme complexity, but fundamentally the same in all cells of eukaryotic organisms. In the case of animal cells is located in the core cells. In contrast, in the cells of plants, it has parietal localization. However, the position, shape and size of the nucleus can vary depending on the intensity of metabolism. At the core are contained chromosomes and nucleoli (see below). Thanks to them, the core of tightly packed DNA, RNA and proteins. The contents of the nucleus is sometimes called nucleoplasm or karyoplasm. It is separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear membrane constructed of two layers (outer and inner) thickness of 7 nm and having a pore diameter of 40-100 nm. The pores occupy about 5% of the core. Through the nuclear pores of the synthesized RNA in the nucleus out into the cytoplasm, where it exists a participant in the translation of genetic information (protein synthesis).
Nuclear membrane and nuclear pore membrane system integrated with cells, whereby the cell is substantially different channeled passages provide two motion substances in the cell, from the plasma membrane. In the beginning discovered globular and fibrous protein structures. The number of pores depends on the type of cells and usually increases the 8-period. Between the membrane layers is the so-called perinuclear space width of 20-60 nm. The outer nuclear membrane is often transferred into the endoplasmic reticulum. When the cells divide, the nuclear envelope disappear and restores after division. Nuclear material (ka-rioplazma) – dense colloid.
The number of chromosomes in somatic cells
Species of plants m
Number of chromosomes (in di-ploidiom set)
Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium malariae 2
Fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster 8
Housefly Musca domestica 12
Carp Cyrpinus carpio 104
Green frog Rana esculenta 26
Dove Columba livia 80
Rabbit Lepus cuniculus 44
Chimpanzees Antropopitecus pan 48
Man Homo sapiens 46
Potato Solanum tuberosum 48
Rye Secale cereale 14
Wheat (soft) Triticum 42
Corn Zea mays 20
The most important function of the core is that it is a management center in a cell, it is the synthesis of DNA, RNA and nuclear proteins.
b) The chromosomes. Chromosomes are located in the nucleus. Their name is entered in the literature B. Valdeylom in 1883, they are in the form of rods, wires and loops. For each chromosome is characterized by specific features related to the length and position of the constriction (centromere) along the length of the chromosome. Each of the FIR-mitotiches individual chromosome consists of two sister chromium-NPD, held centromere. Depending on the location of the centromere distinguish metacentric, submetatsentriches-tions, acrocentric and body-centric chromosomes (Fig. 51). The number of chromosomes in the nucleus of somatic constantly cells where they are located in pairs. The diploid number of chromosomes is called karyotype (from the Greek. Caryon – core, type – a form type).